The Self in the Machine

eng Artykuł w języku angielskim DOI: 10.14313/PAR_204/78

wyślij Karolina Zawieska*, Brian R. Duffy** * Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP ** SMARTlab at University College Dublin (UCD), Dublin

Pobierz Artykuł


Social human-robot interaction (HRI) has been widely recognised as one of the major challenges for robotics. This social aspect includes designing robots that embraces various humanlike characteristics regarding robot appearance and behaviour. Few HRI studies, however, address the core goal of human social interaction, i.e. the development of the self. This paper argues that social robots can constitute an illusion or an extension of the human self and should be developed as such. The concept of the self and its meanings for HRI research are here discussed from the symbolic interactionism perspective.


human-robot, interaction, self, self-extension, symbolic interactionism

Jaźń maszyny


Interakcja społeczna między ludźmi i robotami stanowi jedno z głównych wyzwań dla współczesnej robotyki. Aspekt społeczny interakcji między ludźmi i maszynami zawiera budowanie robotów, które posiadają cechy naśladujące cechy ludzkie w kontekście wyglądu i zachowania robota. Mimo to, niewiele prac skupia się na głównym celu ludzkich interakcji społecznych z robotami, tzn. na rozwinięciu jaźni w maszynie. Autorzy niniejszej pracy twierdzą, że roboty mogą stanowić rozszerzenie ludzkiej jaźni i jako takie powinny być rozwijane. Pojęcie jaźni oraz jego znaczenie dla badań w dziedzinie Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) omawiane są w pespektywy interakcjonizmu symbolicznego.

Słowa kluczowe

człowieka-robot, interakcja, interakcjonizm symboliczny, jaźń, rozszerzenie jaźni


  1. Ahuvia A.C., Beyond the Extended Self: Loved Objects and Consumers’ Identity Narratives. Journal of consumer research, 2005. 32(1): 171–184.
  2. Bar-Cohen Y., Haptic Interfaces, in Automation, Miniature Robotics and Sensors for Nondestructive Evaluation and Testing, A.S.f.N. Testing, Editor 2000.
  3. Birlo M., Tapus A., The Crucial Role of Robot Self-Awareness in HRI, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2011, ACM: Lausanne, Switzerland. 115–116.
  4. Cassam Q., The Embodied Self, in The Oxford Handbook of The Self, S. Gallagher, Editor 2011, Oxford University Press.
  5. Chella A., Manzotti R., Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness. AI and Consciousness: Theoretical Foundations and Current Approaches, 2007.
  6. Dautenhahn K., Methodology & Themes of Human-Robot Interaction: A Growing Research Field. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 2007. 4(1): 103–108.
  7. Dittmar H., Material and Consumer Identities [in:] Handbook of Identity Theory and Research, Schwartz S., Luyckx K., Vignoles V.L., Eds. 2011, Springer.
  8. Duffy B.R., Social Empowerment Of Autonomous Mobile Robotics. [in:] 1st International Conference on Autonomous Minirobots for Research and Edutainment 2001. Paderborn, Germany.
  9. Duffy, B.R., Anthropomorphism and Robotics, in The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour 2002: England.
  10. Forsythe D.E., Studying Those Who Study Us: An Anthropologist in the World of Artificial Intelligence. Writing Science 2002: Stanford University Press.
  11. Gallup G.G., Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition. Science, 1970. 167(3914): 86–87.
  12. Gergen K.J., The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life 1992: Basic books.
  13. Gergen K.J., Technology and the Self: From the Essential to the Sublime. Constructing the Self in a Mediated Age, 1996: 127–140.
  14. Giddens A., Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age 1991: Stanford University Press.
  15. Gold, K. and B. Scassellati. Learning About the Self and Others Through Contingency. in AAAI Spring Symposium on Developmental Robotics. 2005.
  16. Goris K., Saldien J., Vanderborght B., Lefeber D., Probo, an intelligent huggable robot for HRI studies with children, in Human-Robot Interaction, Chugo D., Editor 2010.
  17. Groom V., L. Takayama P. Ochi and C. Nass, I am my robot: the impact of robot-building and robot form on operators, in Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2009, ACM: California, USA. 31–36.
  18. Herman N.J., Reynolds L.T., Symbolic Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology 1994: AltaMira Press.
  19. Hinds, P.J., Roberts T.L., Jones H., Whose job is it any way? A study of human-robot interaction in a collaborative task. Human-Computer Interaction, 2004. 19(1): 151–181.
  20. Holland, O., Machine consciousness 2003: Imprint Academic.
  21. Jones R.A., Relationalism through Social Robotics. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 2013.
  22. Lim W.Y. Self-Awareness in Mobile Robots. in Robotics-DL tentative. 1992. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  23. MacDorman K.F., Cowley S.J., Long-term relationships as a benchmark for robot personhood. in The 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2006. IEEE.
  24. Mead G., Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Works of George Herbert Mead, Vol. 1) 1967: University Of Chicago Press.
  25. Michel P., Gold K., Scassellati B., Motion-Based Robotic Self-Recognition. in Proceedings. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2004. IEEE.
  26. Minsky M.L., Conscious machines. in Machinery of Consciousness. 1991.
  27. Novianto R., Williams M.A., The Role of Attention in Robot Self-Awareness. 18th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication. 2009. IEEE.
  28. Pagis, M., Embodied Self-Reflexivity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 2009. 72(3): 265–283.
  29. Richardson, L., The Modern Robot and the Postmodern Cyborg: The Post-Human as an Image of Anxiety. Emergence: A Journal of Undergraduate Literary Criticism and Creative Research, 2012. 3.
  30. Ross, J.A., The Self: From Soul to Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2003. 10(2): 67-85.
  31. Sandstrom, K., D. Martin and G. Fine, Symbolic Interactionism at the End of the Century, in Hanbook of Social Theory, G. Ritzer and B. Smart, Editors. 2001, SAGE Publications Ltd: London. 217–232.
  32. Stets J.E., Burke P.J., A Sociological Approach to Self and Identity, in Handbook of Self and Identity, Leary M.R., Tangney J.P., Editors. 2005, The Guilford Press.
  33. Stryker S., Symbolic Interaction as an Approach to Family Research [in:] Symbolic Interaction: A Reader in Social Psychology, Manis J.G. Meltzer B.N., Editors. 1978, ALLYN AND BACON, INC.
  34. Takeno, J., T. Takiguchi and A. Mizunaga, A Study of Self-Awarness in Robots. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 2013. 5(2): 145–164.
  35. Turkle S., A Nascent Robotics Culture: New Complicities for Companionship, in AAAI Technical Report Series 2006.
  36. Turner, J.H., The Structure of Sociological Theory 2003: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
  37. Turner, J.H., Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Identity, in Contemporary Sociological Theory, J.H. Turner, Editor 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
  38. Vertesi, J., “Seeing like a rover”: embodied experience on the Mars exploration rover mission, in CHI ‘08 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2008, ACM: Florence, Italy. 2523–2532.
  39. Zawieska K., Duffy B.R., Sprońska A., Understanding anthropomorphisation in social robotics. Pomiary Automatyka Robotyka, 2012(11): 78–82.